Watermelon cultivation in India – Kavya Organic Farm

Watermelon cultivation in India

Watermelon cultivation in India is limited to the Western Ghats, a mountain range in southwestern India. It is widely known for its waterfalls and lush green forests. It’s interesting that both watermelon and humans have a similar evolutionary history of being spread by birds. Watermelon cultivation in India

Watermelons were first created by plants that had seeds from the fruit of the already-evolved cashew apple plant (Anacardiaceae). A mutation occurred causing cashew apple plants to produce flowers with true-breeding watermelons; This mutation was picked up by birds and dispersed throughout different countries, including Africa, where they were introduced to Americans centuries later in colonial times. Watermelon cultivation in India

When a cashew apple plant and its watermelon seeds get depleted, they can be combined again with the “wild-type” watermelon to form a new hybrid that can reproduce itself. However, because the wild-type fruits are not helpful for pollination, pollination must be done by hand (for example, in China).

There are two main types of watermelon:

Smooth: A smooth-skinned type is sometimes grown as a novelty fruit in some regions, but it tends to have inferior taste due to its lack of oil glands. grooved:- Grooved-skinned watermelons have many oil glands. Watermelon cultivation in India

Watermelons need full sun and rich fertile soil. They require exposure to moist air for a period of time. A proper location for watermelon cultivation is in the Western Ghats, between 500 and 2000 meters above sea level. The region receives a mixture of hot and cool seasons, which can be seasonal or irregular. Overcrowding leads to reduced plant growth and heightened susceptibility to attack by insects and diseases. Watermelon cultivation in India

There are two types of watermelons that look exactly similar but are genetically different: “Cantaloupe” and “Muskmelon”. Both the mite “Apininotus leucopus” and the fruit fly “Drosophila yakuba” attack them, so crop rotation is recommended. The watermelon leafminer (“Acentria ephemerella”) and the squash bug (“Anasa tristis”) also attack them. Watermelon cultivation in India

Squash bugs can lay eggs on the watermelon plant’s leaves. The larvae will then eat the plant’s leaves, causing it to dry up, fall off, and die. Therefore, every year in India’s Western Ghats about ten percent of plants are destroyed because of this pest. The plant is not infested by any other pest species there; India has no native insects that damage watermelons. All of the country’s pests have been introduced by humans or birds (the main disseminators). If the plant is healthy and strong, it will be much less likely to be infested by pests.

In India the stem borer drill (“Metzneria lappae”) and the “Gnorimus” type of moth attack watermelons. The stem borer drill lays its eggs in stems, and when they hatch, the larvae tunnel through them. This causes damage to watermelon plants by facilitating infection by pathogens. The largest pest in India is aphids (“Aphis gossypii”). Their bodies are covered in a waxy filmy coat that protects them from sprays. Black ants and other predators also eat aphids, but they can be expensive and difficult to maintain.

7-8 inches of rain fall in India’s Western Ghats region each month from June through September. The average monthly rainfall on the Indian subcontinent is about 60 times more than this, so watermelons take a long time to grow there. India’s Western Ghats is one of the driest regions in the world. It still has substantial rainfall, however, during India’s monsoon season: about 18 inches a month in October through February.

A seedling grown in a pot can be planted outside after three years for its first harvest, but will require two more years to bear fruit. Planting semi-hardy varieties that require only a little winter chill is possible there at three years old if they are rootbound from being kept under glass in winter.

The plant is happy when planted alone or in rows. It can be grown on a trellis for easier maintenance, although it is not necessary for growth or fruit production. Also, there is no need for any chemicals to be added to the watermelon plant because there are no pests that attack it. A synthetic insecticide with a delayed action, like chlorpyrifos, can be used if pests are a problem

The tree or vine can be pruned after harvesting to encourage more growth. Varieties of watermelon that are planted in rows are heavier, with higher sugar content, than those grown in a pot. Also, if the watermelon is grown in a pot, it will require additional fertilizers and watering, and will not bear full-size fruit for at least two years. Hoeing before the plant fruits is recommended when growing on trellises to prevent weed problems.

India’s watermelon is at its peak during the months of September and October. It can be sold year round if it is protected from frost and stored in a cold room with temperatures between 5 C-10 C. Watermelon cultivation in India

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The green (unripe) fruit does not taste good, but it can be used to make a jam or jelly. The rind of the watermelon plant can be eaten too. There are two types of rinds: thick and thin. The thick one is bitter before being cooked, so it isn’t good to eat just off the vine; However, it can be used in soups and curries after being boiled or fried first. The thin strip can be eaten simply as is, but it must be picked when it is yellow and ripe rather than green and unripe. The thick rind can be used in stews. The watermelon plant itself can be fermented to make alcohol. (In India the fruit tastes bad if the soil is too acidic.) Watermelon cultivation in India

Watermelon cultivation in India

People in India tend to eat the watermelon fruits between September and December, with smaller amounts eaten in January and February. The most important time for cultivation is between March and June, when large quantities of ripe fruit are available. Watermelon cultivation in India

In India there are three types of watermelons: “Aquatic”, “Hippopo” and “Cantaloupe”. The Hippopo type is rarely seen, but is available in the markets in parts of the state of Kerala. The Cantaloupe type accounts for over seventy percent of all the watermelons sold in India. It is known as “Hippopo” there. The Aquatic watermelon, sometimes called the pond pumpkin, is grown semi-wild in fishing villages and sold to tourists who visit them.

The Muskmelon type may be found on market shelves all year round, but it is expensive because it is not mass-produced like the Cantaloupe watermelon. Also called a “Cantaloupe”, it doesn’t taste good when eaten unripe like a muskmelon does. To be eaten when ripe, it needs to be protected from the sun so that it doesn’t turn green while ripening. It is an ideal fruit to make ice cream from because of its highly sweet juice. Watermelon cultivation in India

vulgaris is used as a model organism for research into the genetics of flowering plants in general. Particularly prominently work with this species is on floral development and its control by the plant hormone gibberellic acid (GA). Watermelon cultivation in India

In 1992, researchers at the University of Georgia, in collaboration with colleagues at Purdue University and the Agricultural Research Council, discovered that three genes combine to control floral development. Two genes, “Cup” and “Lac” codes for a protein called GA-binding inhibitor. The third gene called “Corymbl” codes for a protein that binds to GA and affects flower development. Watermelon cultivation in India

Watermelon has been grown successfully in Tasmania since the early 1800s. At present it is grown in commercial quantities on an intensive basis. The first commercial varieties were developed in the early 1960s. Watermelon cultivation in India

The following hybrids have gained the Award:-

“Solanum melongena” is a good biofuel crop because it can be grown on marginal lands that are otherwise unused and not suited for crop production; such lands include desert, subsistence farming areas, and hilly regions. It is drought-resistant and can yield high amounts of biomass per acre. Furthermore, it can be used as animal feedstock if the fruit is removed before harvest.

Melons exhibit high yields of dry matter, and are rich in protein, mineral and vitamin contents. They contain alkaloids, including urea (present at 0.15–2.2%), formic acid (0.1–1%), oxalic acid (0.04%) and protocatechuic acid (0.01%). Watermelon cultivation in India Watermelon cultivation in India

Melons are generally grown for both human consumption as well as for cultivation farms; although the latter is troublesome with regards to pollination among crops such as tomatoes and cantaloupes while they’re growing due to the large amount of hand-pollinated flowers. Watermelon cultivation in India

About two-thirds of the world’s production of watermelons is grown in India, with the states of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka accounting for more than one-third. Watermelon cultivation in India

Wild “Melongena” spp. are distributed throughout Africa (especially Southern Africa, including Swaziland,) Europe, North America and Central America (Nicaragua.) Watermelon cultivation in India

The following fruits are related to a Melon:

Some other fruits that might be confused with a Watermelon:

India has many varieties of watermelon in various colors such as white or red/orange or yellow. Watermelon cultivation in India

Watermelon has been grown successfully in Tasmania since the early 1800s. At present it is grown in commercial quantities on an intensive basis. The first commercial varieties were developed in the early 1960s. Watermelon cultivation in India

The following cultivars have gained the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Garden Merit:-

The following hybrids have gained the Award:-

Melons are generally grown for both human consumption as well as for cultivation farms; although the latter is troublesome with regards to pollination among crops such as tomatoes and cantaloupes while they’re growing due to the large amount of hand-pollinated flowers. Watermelon cultivation in India

This group of Solanum spp. are all derived from a single ancestral species, “Solanum centrale”.”.” This species has been found in South America and evolved into different reproductive modes and species. There is both a diploid form, “Solanum centrale” (2n = 2x = 24), and a tetraploid form, “Solanum chaconii” (2n = 4x = 48). Watermelon cultivation in India

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